A practical understanding of employment equity is key to be able to apply it to your workplace. The purpose of Employment Equity is to encourage fair and equitable representation and promote previously disadvantaged groups in the workplace. These are Black, Female and Disabled persons.

The purpose of employment equity is three-fold:

  • To remove unfair discrimination
  • To promote equity in the workplace
  • To remove the barriers of the past

The Employment Equity Act No. 55 of 1998 governs the way in which we conduct opportunity in the workplace and aims to ensure that fair and equal treatment of employees takes place. The purpose of the Act is to promote equal opportunity and fair treatment through the elimination of unfair discrimination that may have been present, either in Practice, Procedure or Policy and aims to implement affirmative action measures to address the disadvantages in employment.


The purpose of the Act is to also redress the wrongs of apartheid which was a political, economic and social regime that manipulated and controlled the labour market in such a way that privileged the white minority whilst disadvantaging and discriminating the black majority.

What are some examples of unfair discrimination which the law prevents?

·        It is illegal for Black and White workers doing the same job to get paid different wages.

·        It is illegal for women not to get the same benefits as men, or for a woman who is doing the same job as a man, not to get the same pay.

·        People with disabilities canʼt be refused a job interview just because they have a disability.

·        Somebody who is HIV positive canʼt be refused a job, or training opportunities, just because he/she is HIV positive

To do this one would need a plan on how to get them there, either through training (Skills Development), promotion or new recruits. This is where the employment Equity Plan comes in.


Employment Equity Regulations

The regulations of Employment Equity provide detail to the legal framework of the Employment Equity Act (EEA). The Act deals with the elimination of unfair discrimination, affirmative action, the duties of employers in relation to affirmative action in the workplace and enforcing the provisions of the Act.

The regulations set out what is expected of a designated employer.

Designated employer:             An employer who employers more than 50 employees


Employs fewer than 50 employees but has a total annual turnover equal to, or above the applicable turnover of a small business in a specific sector


Is a municipality or Organ of State or is bound by a collective agreement in terms of the Labour Relations Act.

Designated Groups:                Black people (African, Coloured and Indian), women and disabled people who are citizens of South Africa.

Note that Non-citizens are to be recorded separately but counted as White for B-BBEE purposes.

Duties of a Designated Employer

Consult with its employees

1.      Appointment of an Employment Equity Manager or senior employee in the Company who will oversee Employment Equity is implemented correctly in the organization and who will work with the committee. (on a letterhead and signed by the CEO.)

2.      A designated employer must take reasonable steps to consult with its employees and reach agreement on matters outlined in the analysis, plan and report

3.      The employees should nominate their representatives to join the Employment Equity Committee

4.      The Committee should meet quarterly to do an analysis and identify barriers, prepare the plan, monitor the effectiveness of affirmative action measures and the reaching of the numeric goals and targets.

5.      Nomination forms should be retained as proof of the workforce voting

6.      Meetings must be documented, and attendance registers signed

Collect information and conduct an analysis

1.      When a designated employer collects information contemplated in section 19 of the Act, the employer must request each employee in the workforce to complete a declaration using the EEA1 form.

2.       Where an employee refuses to complete the EEA1 form or provides inaccurate information, the employer may establish the designation of an employee by using reliable historical and existing data. People with disabilities have the right not to declare their disability, unless it is in line with the inherent requirements of the job.

3.       A designated employer with its Committee must conduct an analysis as required by section 19 of the Act by reviewing its workforce profile and employment policies, practices, procedures and the working environment in order to identify employment barriers which adversely affect people from designated groups from being equitably represented across all occupational levels. The outcome of the analysis should be recorded using the EEA12 in these regulations.

4.      When a designated employer conducts the analysis as required by section 19 of the Act, the employer may refer to –

(a)     EEA8, a guide on the applicable national and regional economically active population (EAP); and

(b)     EEA9, which contains a description of occupational levels. It is vitally important to ensure all employees are correctly classified into Occupational levels. A designated employer must refer to the EEA9 in the regulations for guidance on how to differentiate between the various occupational levels

Prepare and implement an Employment Equity Plan

1.      A designated employer must refer to the relevant Codes of Good Practice when preparing an Employment Equity Plan contemplated in section 20 of the Act.

2.      The Employment Equity Plan must contain, at a minimum, all the elements contained in the EEA13 template of these regulations and be for a period of 3 to 5 years.

3.      A designated employer must retain their Employment Equity Plan for a period of five years after the expiry of the plan.

4.      Before the end of the term of the current Plan, a designated employer must prepare a subsequent employment equity Plan.

Report (EEA2 and EEA4)

1.      A designated employer must submit a report (EEA2) and income differentials (EEA4) to the Director-General in terms of section 21 of the Act annually on the first working day of October or by 15 January of the following year only in the case of electronic reporting using the EEA2 form.

2.      Employment equity reports must be addressed to the Employment Equity Registry, Department of Labour, Private Bag X117, Pretoria, 0001 or submitted electronically using the online reporting system available on the departmental website, The employers reference number must be used to log in and obtain a password.

3.      An employer who becomes designated on or after the first working day of April, but before the first working day of October, must only submit its first report on the first working day of October of the following year.

4.      A designated employer that is a holding company with more than one registered entity may choose to submit a consolidated report.

5.      A designated employer who chooses to submit a consolidated report contemplated in sub-regulation 10(4) must have a consolidated Employment Equity Plan which is supported by individual Employment Equity Plans for each of the registered entities included in the consolidated report.

6.      The method of reporting contemplated in sub-regulation 10(4) should remain consistent for the duration of the plan.

7.      An employer must inform the Department in writing immediately of any changes to their trade name, designation status, contact details or any other major changes, including mergers, acquisitions and insolvencies.

8.      A designated employer who is unable to report must notify the Director-General in writing before the last working day of August in the same year giving reasons for its inability to do so using the EEA14 form.

9.      A designated employer must retain a copy of the report for a period of five years after it has been submitted to the Director-General.

10.   In terms of Section 22, every designated employer must publish a summary of a report required by Section 21 reflecting progress in their annual financial report by using the EEA10 annexure for guidance.

11.   An employment equity report (EEA2), except for the Income Differential Statement (EEA4), submitted to the Department of Labour is a public document and must be assessible for all employees to view. A copy may be requested by the public by completing and submitting the EEA11 form to the Department of Labour, Employment Equity Registry.


1.      A Summary of the Act in (EEA 3) of these Regulations must be displayed at the workplace.

2.      The EEA2 after being completed and submitted must be accessible to employees. (Not the EE!4 which has confidential salary information)

Enforcement Mechanisms

1.      A labour inspector may request and obtain a written undertaking using the EEA5 form

2.      A labour Inspector may issue a compliance order to a designated employer using the EEA6 form.

3.      The Director-General may require designated employers who have been identified for the DG Review process to fully and accurately complete the DG Review Assessment form (EEA7) and furnish the required documents


EEA1:  Employee declaration in terms of Section 19(1) of the Act

EEA2:  Report to the Director-General in terms of Section 21 of the Act

EEA3:  Summary of the Act in terms of Section 25(1) of the Act

EEA4:  Statement of income differentials in terms of Section 27 of the Act

EEA5:  Request for an undertaking in terms of Section 36 of the Act

EEA6:  Compliance order in terms of Section 37(1) of the Act

EEA7:  DG Review Assessment Form in terms of Section 43 of the Act

EEA8:  Demographic Data in terms of Section 42 of the Act (EAP for Analysis)

EEA9:  Occupational Levels in terms of Section 21 of the Act

EEA10: Summary of the employment equity progress report in terms of Section 22 of the Act

EEA11: Request for employer’s employment equity report in terms of Section 21(5) of the Act

EEA12: Template for reporting on analysis conducted in terms of Section 19 of the Act

EEA 13: Template for Employment Equity Plan in terms of Section 20 of the Act

EEA 14: Director-General Notification in terms of Section 21(4A) of the Act


The Roles and Responsibilities of the Employment Equity Committee

A Company should take reasonable steps to consult with its workforce. It does this by using its Employment Equity Manager and its Committee, as it is not reasonably practicable to expect the CEO, who is running the Company to be available to consult with the entire workforce.


  1. The Employees must nominate representatives to represent their occupational level on the committee.


  1. Representatives selected must agree to be on the committee and be able to add value.


  1. The committee must have employees from designated groups and non-designated groups


  1. The committee must have at least one senior employee representing senior Management who has the authority to make decisions.


The main role of the committee is to conduct an analysis of the workplace, prepare and implement an employment equity plan, assist with the drafting of the report by reporting on those trained, promoted and recruited. Very often the Employment Equity Committee is often also the Skills Development or Training Committee. As you will be able to see by now skills development goes hand in hand with employment equity.


Apart from the above, the Committee should meet quarterly to ensure that the organisation is meeting their Employment Equity objectives (its numeric goals and targets) by ensuring the effective implementation of its plan.


Online reporting Of the EE report & Regulated EE Templates (EEA12 & EEA13) Forms.


Before being able to analyse, all your employees must have completed an EEA1 form. This is their declaration of their race, gender and disability if there is one. Too often employees are categorised incorrectly. Once this is done their positions must be categorized (EEA9) and an accurate workforce profile drafted. Only then will the committee be able to see where there is under and over representation on a certain level, race or gender.


The EEA2 or Report will be drafted annually and submitted online between 1st October and 15th January of each year. It will record your Workforce Profile, Workforce Profile with disabilities, recruitments, terminations, training interventions and promotions for a 12 month period. It will also ask for your numeric goals and targets.


It is vital to keep records of all the above to be able to accurately report. Note that the workforce profile is a snapshot of a certain day only and not of the duration of 12 months.


The EEA 4 document is a record of the annual income for each occupational level by race and gender. This is required to be submitted annually and online together with the EEA2. The sum total of it should add up to your total payroll. Where there are discrepancies in income between employees of different race and gender on the same occupational category a Company will be required to give reasons. (Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value).


Once the EEA2 and EEA4 is submitted online a copy will be e-mailed to you for your records together with a Proof of Submission letter. All should be printed and filed.


The EEA1 (employee declaration), EEA12 (template for analysis) and EEA13 (guideline for the Plan) documents do not have to be submitted, these are to be completed and retained at your organizations to refer to and file and for Inspections.


Note: The EAP percentage is to be taken from the STATS SA schedule and recorded on your analysis. Your actual figures per occupational level must be recorded underneath. The percentage of over and under representation must be noted and highlighted and reasons provided below with plans to address this.



The EEA13 template makes it very easy for the Committee to put the Plan together. Before drafting the Plan the Analysis must be done in order to see where over and under representation is in the Company. Only then can a Plan be drafted on how to correct imbalances and over what period of time can this be achieved. The plan would be targeted at the recruitment and promotion of designated groups to senior positions within the Company. The Plan must also be realistic. Your annual reports must show progress in achieving the Plan otherwise this will be scrutinized by the Department of Labour.

  1. The objectives to be achieved for each year of the plan should meet the SMART principle as follows:-
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Attainable
  • Relevant; and
  • Time bound


  1. Barriers and Affirmative Action Measures must be aligned with those indicated in the audit analysis and meet the following requirements:
  • Include time-frames in order to track progress in the implementation of these AA Measures;
  • These time-frames should be within the duration of the EE Plan (no “on-going” permitted) and
  • Include responsible persons to monitor the implementation of these AA Measures (not names of people but designations).


  1. The workforce profile, numerical goals and targets with exact time-frames according to the duration of the plan which must be accompanied by strategies to achieve them as informed by the findings in the audit analysis


  1. The duration of the plan which may not be shorter than 1 year or longer than 5 years (it must have a start and end date in terms of day, month and year).


Section 20 indicates that the duration of the Employment Equity Plan may not be shorter than one year or longer than five years. The duration of the plan must have a specific start and end date,


Managing People with Disabilities for Employment Equity Principles


Widespread ignorance, fear and stereotypes cause people with disabilities to be unfairly discriminated against in society and in employment. As a result, people with disabilities experience high unemployment levels and, in the workplace, often remain in low status jobs and earn lower than average remuneration.

Unfair disability discrimination is perpetuated in many ways. There are many unfounded assumptions about the abilities and performance of job applicants and employees with disabilities. Employers set criteria for selection that exclude disabled people. Occasionally, workplaces are inaccessible and training is inappropriate for people with disabilities or not available at all.

People with disabilities can contribute their skills and abilities to the economy and society. The cost of claims on public social security and occupational benefit schemes can be reduced if employees with disabilities are retained at work.

The main reason to disclose a disability is to request a reasonable accommodation. A reasonable accommodation can allow an employee with a disability to do the job.

Defining persons with disabilities under the Act

Only people who satisfy all the criteria in the definition:
(i) long-term or recurring;
(ii) having a physical or mental impairment;
(iii) which substantially limits,

are considered as persons with disabilities.

Long-term or recurring

(i) Long-term means the impairment has lasted or is likely to persist for at least twelve months. A short-term or temporary illness or injury is not an impairment which gives rise to a disability.

(ii) A recurring impairment is one that is likely to happen again and to be substantially limiting (see below). It includes a constant underlying condition, even if its effects on a person fluctuate.

(iii) Progressive conditions are those that are likely to develop or change or recur. People living with progressive conditions or illnesses are considered as people with disabilities once the impairment starts to be substantially limiting. Progressive or recurring conditions which have no overt symptoms or which do not substantially limit a person are not disabilities.


(i) An impairment may be physical or mental.

(ii) ‘Physical’ impairment means a partial or total loss of a bodily function or part of the body. It includes sensory impairments such as being deaf, hearing impaired, or visually impaired and any combination of physical or mental impairments.

(iii) ‘Mental’ impairment means a clinically recognised condition or illness that affects a person’s thought processes, judgment or emotions.

Substantially limiting

(i) An impairment is substantially limiting if, in the absence of reasonable accommodation by the employer, a person would be either totally unable to do a job or would be significantly limited in doing the job.

(ii) Some impairments are so easily controlled, corrected or lessened, that they have no limiting effects. For example, a person who wears spectacles or contact lenses does not have a disability unless even with spectacles or contact lenses the person’s vision is substantially impaired.

(iii) An assessment whether the effects of impairment are substantially limiting must consider if medical treatment or other devices would control or correct the impairment so that its adverse effects are prevented or removed.

(iv) For reasons of public policy certain conditions or impairments may not be considered disabilities.

Company Data



mr grumpy orange tongue


We all know how stressful it is dealing with irate candidates, and to the best of your ability, you are the calming factor to them while they deal with the frustration of not having a job.

Sitting in an office of recruiters, I have noticed the ever emerging double edged sword when it comes to dealing with your candidates, or potential candidates politely. Sometimes they forget their manners, and the consultant becomes their new punching bag. Naturally, you as the recruiter was to be professional, and put that across to your candidates.

All you want is to place your candidate on the right path, and help them nurture their careers, so when they become unruly and create ridiculous expectations, it is a recruiters worst nightmare.

Let me break these candidates into 5 categories, and share light on how to deal with them accordingly:

  1. The Ego Elitist

ego bubble popped

This type of candidate usually has ZERO work experience, and expect the perfect job to fall into their laps. With the perfect salary to go with it. The frustration starts when they keep pestering you, and fail to understand why you are taking so long to place them (because they are so perfect, right?). Even if they do possess an impressive skill set, the delusions of grandeur are even more impressive, and telling them that will backfire in the most dramatic way.

How to deal with and help them:

The easiest way to deal and help these candidates is to make them realise their own shortcomings. When these candidates are forced to think about their inadequacies, a more realistic way of thinking may set in.


  1. The ‘whatever’ candidate

whatever speech bubble pink

Recruitment is tiring and beneath them. Why would anyone want to have a good work ethic, surely that is for losers only? The candidates are the ones that typically cancel an interview an hour before it starts because they couldn’t be bothered.

How to deal with and help them:

Somestimes, and it is unfortunate, but you have to cut your losses. Why stake your reputation on someone who doesn’t actually want a job. Unless you are the reason they have become so unreceptive (in which case, apologies and try rekindle the relationship), these candidates will be ‘unmarketable’.


  1. The ‘umm’ and ‘err’ candidate

umm on grey background

These candidates never have an answer to your questions. They fumble with their words, and honestly have no idea what is going on half the time. Researching isn’t an obvious choice, and GOOGLE is a foreign entity.  Sometimes, this is because they are inexperienced. They have never been for an interview and are unsure of the work needed to progress to the second stage of interviews.

How to deal with and help them:

Job applications can be daunting and stressful, but if you think these candidates have potential, invest in them! Coach them into becoming interview machines! It never hurts to mentor, and build a strong relationship.


  1. The ‘I need you’ needy candidate


You’ve just done their first face to face interview before sending off their documentation to the respective client, and your cellphone hasn’t stopped ringing. These are the candidates that over-think everything. From what font to type out their C.V’s in, to what colour socks they should wear to their interview.

How to deal with and help them:

They need to establish boundaries, for themselves and for you. The only way to truly help them is to keep them updated when you have information, and not respond to every single whatsapp you receive from them. Each consultant has several candidates they are looking after at any given time, so a precedent needs to be set. For fairness sake. Plus, you need to let your candidate try and figure out the answers for themselves.


  1. The Obnoxious and Rude candidate

mr grumpy orange tongue

These candidates want a job, but heaven forbid you pair them up with the wrong industry.

‘How dare you put my CV forward for a sales position that is beneath me! They are the kings and queens of the condescending voice tone, and it’ll be hard to get them to answer their phones.

How to deal with and help them:

Do they understand the error of their ways? Are they aware of the fact that they easily offend people? Sometimes the best way to get them to understand their bad manners, is to tell them, point blank.

If they are truly keen on finding a job, and allowing yo to help them, they will change their attitude and be more amicable.

Looking for a job?

Please visit our jobseeker page, and upload your C.V  to our nationwide database! Should a potential job offer open, and you are considered, we will contact you!

Looking for staff?

Let our dedicated and hard working team of consultants find you the perfect candidate. Please visit our employer page and tell us what you are looking for!



are leaders born


Leadership is something that is developed over time, it’s not something you are born with.

According to Bernard Bass, there are three ways a person can become a leader:

  1. Trait Theory: this is where personality traits lead people into leadership roles. There are only a few people out there who intrinsically have the traits to be a natural leader.
  2. Great Event Theory: Usually occurs through an event that forces greatness and leadership from an individual. This usually happens because the event made the person realise they had qualities they didn’t even know they had.
  3. Transformational Leadership Theory: This theory states that people choose to be leaders, and as a result, teach themselves leadership techniques. Thus being the most common of the three techniques.

Now that we understand how one can become a leader, what sort of qualities does a leader need to possess in order to be a great mentor?

  1. Before you can mentor an individual, you need to be sure of your plan. A vision! These need to inspire people, so much so that they are ready to believe in your vision and execute your plan.
  2. An effective mentor knows their strengths and weaknesses, and they also know how to maximise on all of them.
  3. You need to have a cool head on your shoulders. Be calm under pressure.
  4. Flexibility is a huge MUST HAVE.
  5. A mentor and leader needs to know how to easily diffuse conflict.

One also needs to realise that it is very hard to mentor, without being a leader.

Want to learn more about how to become a great leader and mentor? Why not check out our blog on Be a Mentor and a Leader, or How To Be An Effective Mentor?

Looking for a job?

Please visit our jobseeker page, and upload your C.V  to our nationwide database! Should a potential job offer open, and you are considered, we will contact you!

Looking for staff?

Let our dedicated and hard working team of consultants find you the perfect candidate. Please visit our employer page and tell us what you are looking for!


be a mentor


Ever wondered what it takes to be a leader and a mentor? This blog article aims to help highlight how you can, in fact, be both.

I’m pretty sure that every human on this earth longs for a work environment that is conducive to progress. We all want to learn. We all want to be appreciated for putting in the effort to learn as well. The push and pull of leaders and their students is a two way street however. The mentor must be willing to teach, and mould. The student needs to be willing to learn, and apply what they have learnt.

I’ve always said the fundamentals to becoming a great leader is to learn how to mentor.

I have found, in my time, that your designated leaders in each job are often not well enough equipped to take on the ‘extra task’ of actually mentoring. Be it for reasons of time or energy, or the most common reason, not wanting to.

The truth of the matter is, you will not help anyone by just ‘managing’ them. By managing your staff, you are only telling them what they already know. That’s why they got the job. By mentoring, you may be surprised at how their performance increases! Your young employees, especially, are the future leaders, and why wouldn’t you want to be a part of what makes them great future leaders?

When you finally come around and realise how rewarding mentoring can actually be, there are a couple rules of thumb to follow:

  1. Always make sure your purpose is clear. There is no point in trying to mentor if you have no plan. What are you hoping to achieve? What sort of growth will you be facilitating?
  2. Learn how to read body language. Sometimes a discussion needs to be drawn out, for all points to be uncovered and further discussed. Your learners may be nervous at first, but if they know they are in safe hands, with ears that are always ready to listen, your lessons will be well received.
  3. Try not to leave important discussions for the last minute. Rather have small discussions frequently. Try not to give off the ‘we should have a chat’ vibe, as this may seem rather off-putting.
  4. Remember you have chosen to be a mentor. So walk the talk.
Looking for a job?

Please visit our jobseeker page, and upload your C.V  to our nationwide database! Should a potential job offer open, and you are considered, we will contact you!

Looking for staff?

Let our dedicated and hard working team of consultants find you the perfect candidate. Please visit our employer page and tell us what you are looking for!



labour relations



In today’s world, we need to arm ourselves with as much information regarding our rights. Especially when it comes to fair and unfair labour practices., according to Labour Relations in South Africa.

Every employee/worker is entitled to fair labour practices in South Africa. Let us elaborate a bit more on fair labour practices, and the different types of unfair dismissal.

First, who does The Labour Relations Act apply to?

The Labour Relations Act applies to all employers, workers, trade unions and employers’ organisations. It does not apply to:

  • National Defence Force,
  • National Intelligence Agency, or
  • South African Secret Service.

The Labour Relations Act (LRA), Act 66 of 1995 aims to promote economic development, social justice, labour peace and democracy in the workplace.

For a fuller understanding of The Labour Relations Act, please download it here.


Under dismissal, every employee or worker has the right to not be unfairly dismissed.

What is the definition of DISMISSAL?:

“Dismissal” means that, or the reason for ‘Dismissal’ is –

  • the employer has ended a job contract with or without notice;
  • an employer did not renew a job contract as agreed, or offered to renew it on less favourable terms;
  • an employer does not allow a worker to return to work after she –
    • has taken legal maternity leave;
    • has been absent up to 4 weeks before and up to 8 weeks after the birth;
  • an employer, who has dismissed several workers for the same reason, re-employs only some of them;
  • a worker ended a job contract with or without notice, because –
    • the employer made working circumstances unbearable; or
    • a new employer made working conditions less favourable than the old employer.


Fair Dismissal is when:

labour relations

There is really only 3 grounds for fair dismissal;

  1. Conduct of the employee
  2. Capacity of the employee (his ability to do his job)
  3. Operational requirements of your business (retrenchment)

As stated by (, fair dismissal is also when;

  • A worker has reached retirement age

If an employer wants to dismiss an employee, there are 5 vital elements to substantive fairness:

  • The accused employee did commit the misconduct.
  • The employee knew or should’ve known that the conduct was an infringement of your rules.
  • The rule or standard was valid or reasonable.
  • The rule was consistently applied.
  • The misconduct was serious enough to merit the harsh penalty of dismissal.

What are some of the reasons an employer would want to dismiss an employee or worker?

  • Absenteeism
  • Alcohol addiction & abuse
  • Breach of restraint of trade agreement
  • Desertion
  • Disability
  • Email/Internet abuse
  • Failure to observe security and safety regulations
  • Gross incompetence
  • Gross negligence
  • Illegal striking
  • Incapacity
  • Insubordination
  • Moonlighting
  • Poor performance
  • Refusal to work
  • Retrenchment
  • Sexual harassment
  • Sleeping on duty
  • Theft
  • Time keeping

Unfair Dismissal is when:

  • a worker intended to or did take part in or supported a strike or protest; or
  • a worker refused to do the work of a striking or locked out co-worker, unless his refusal will endanger life or health; or
  • a worker is forced to accept a demand; or
  • a worker intended to or did take action against an employer by –
    • exercising a right; or
    • taking part in proceedings; or
  • a worker is pregnant or intends to be pregnant; or
  • an employer discriminated against a worker because of race, gender, sex, ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, political opinion, culture, language, marital status or family responsibility; or
  • an employer cannot prove –
    • a worker’s misconduct or inability; or
    • that the employer’s operational needs are valid; or
    • that the dismissal procedure was fair.


What happens after the idea of dismissal has been discussed?

There is something called ‘Pre-Dismissal Arbitration’, where, with a worker’s consent, an employer may want to seek assistance from a council, agency or Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration also known as the CCMA, to arbitrate on a workers conduct or ability.

Only after the employer has paid the necessary fee, and the worker has given consent, will an arbitrator be appointed.

When the time for arbitration arrives, a worker may represent himself, or be represented by the following individuals:

  • A co-worker
  • A director or worker (if they are a juristic person)
  • Any member of the workers registered trade union, or
  • A lawyer that has been agreed to by both parties.

Now that we understand a bit more of the processes included before and during a dismissal, what exactly constitutes and ‘Unfair Labour Practice’?

Unfair Labour Practice:

Means any failure to act or unfair act of an employer towards a worker.


  • Promotion/Demotion, Trial Periods, Training or Benefits.
  • Suspending a worker or disciplinary action,
  • Refusing to re-employ a worker, as agreed, and
  • An employer makes circumstances difficult for a worker who was force to make a protected disclosure.

In the event of this happening, a worker may dispute their dismissal.


What is the procedure when it comes to ‘disputes’?

When unfairly dismissed, a worker may refer disputes for conciliation in writing to:

  • a statutory or bargaining council; or
  • the CCMA.

Referrals must be made within –

  • 30 days of a dismissal date or an employer’s decision to dismiss;
  • 90 days of the date of an unfair labour act; or
  • 90 days of the date when a worker became aware of an unfair act.

Please note: A dispute may be referred to after the above periods if the worker can show good cause.

The employer must receive a copy of the referral.

What happens in an ‘unresolved dispute’?:

labour relations

This is what needs to happen if a dispute remains unresolved: –

  • a council or the CCMA must arbitrate it, if a worker requests it, if –
    • a worker alleges that the dispute is about his conduct or capacity;
    • the worker alleges that his employer made working conditions intolerable or less favourable after a transfer;
    • the worker does not know why he was dismissed;
    • the dispute is about an unfair labour practice;
  • a worker may refer a dispute to the Labour Court, if they say the reason is –
    • automatically unfair;
    • based on operational needs;
    • they refused to join a trade union;
    • the worker was refused trade union membership;
    • the worker was expelled from a trade union.

A council or the CCMA must arbitrate immediately if –

  • the dismissal is linked to a worker’s probation; or
  • any other dispute where no-one objects to it being settled in terms of this subsection.

For more information on the CCMA, please visit


Thank you for reading!



sick leave


It is pertinent to bring yourself up to date with current labour laws, not only to perform better in your job, but to know your rights too. With that in mind, we have put together a basic guide to ‘sick leave’ for you.

sick leave


As stated by the Department of Labour, ‘workers may take the number of days they would normally work in a 6-week period for sick leave on full pay in a 3 year period’. Employees can also insist on proof of illness (doctors’ note and so on) before paying a worker for sick leave.


The Basic Conditions of Employment Act applies to all employees and workers, but;

  • Members of the National Defence Force,
  • National Intelligence Agency,
  • South African Secret Service, or
  • Unpaid volunteers working for a charity.

See, Basic Conditions of Employment Act


The provisions for sick leave do not apply to;

  • Workers who wrk less thatn 24 hours in a month,
  • Workers who receive compensation for an occupational injury or disease,
  • Leave over and above that provided for by the Act.


As stated by the Department of Labour, ‘workers may take the number of days they would normally work in a 6-week period for sick leave on full pay in a 3 year period’.

However, during the first 6 months of employment, workers are only entitled to one day of paid sick leave for every 26 days worked.


An employer may require a medical certificate before paying workers who are absent for more than 2 consecutive days, or who are absent often (more than twice in an 8-week period).

That is your basic guide to sick leave in South Africa. Be sure to read our article on Annual Leave, and how it works.







We all know the job market is rather saturated, so we need to equip ourselves to stand out from the rest of the herd. One of the ways we can do this is by understanding the interview process and preparing ourselves beforehand.

Here is how to prepare for an interview:

  1. Always research the Employer/Hiring Manager

Knowledge is power, and you should understand the employer, requirements of the job and some background of the people that will be interviewing you. Doing this will help you better answer all questions that will be thrown your way!


Look up the company website, and any other published materials associated with the company. Do you have a wide network of contact? Chat to them too!


  1. Scour the new for common interview questions and prepare yourself beforehand

Having researched common interview questions that you expect will be asked, you can actively prepare yourself for these questions ahead of time. You can ask the hiring manager what type of interview set up you will be experiencing. Will it be one on one, or in a group? You need to know this in order to prepare concise and to the point responses, that cover your experience, accomplishments and skill set.


A good way to do this is to put all the information into a story, there is no need to remember specifics points an=s you want to engage in conversation.

  1. Dress the part

Every company/organisation has their own culture, and you need to plan your outfit accordingly. It’s always better to overdress than under dress, and wear clothing that is clean and neatly pressed. One thing to remember, try not to smoke or eat right before the interview – and keep your teeth and mouth fresh with a breath mint or mouth wash.

  1. Be relaxed and prepared, and arrive on time

There is no excuse on this earth for arriving late for an interview. If something catastrophic has happened, don’t leave the interviewer waiting, call them and explain what the situation is. They will appreciate the professionalism. As a best practice, try arrive to the interview 15 minutes before, this will also give you a bit of time to observe the workplace dynamic.


Take a pen and notepad to jot down notes you may need to remember, take copies of all qualifications, certificates, portfolio pieces and awards. Also, remember to switch of your cellphone and throw the gum you have been chewing into the bin.

  1. First impressions are everything

Always be poilite and offer warm greetings to everyone you meet on the way to your interview. You want people to rmemeber you for the right reasons. Also, the impression your interviewer gets of you may make or break the rest of your interview. When greeting your interviewer, stand, smile, make eye contact and offer a firm handshake (but not bone crushing). Studies have shown that within the first 20 miuntes of an interview, the hiring manager has already made critical decisions about you, the job applicant.

  1. Be genuine, cheerful, determined, confident and concise

Now you are in the interview, yikes! Another best practice here is to make sure the quality of your answers and the delivery thereafter is on point. Remebering you want to get to the point where you ca showcase your skills, experience and fit within and with the job and employer. You don’t want to ramble and bore the interviewer, so practicing, as mentioned in point #2, your answers, will help you avoid boredom.



  1. Body language is everything

Not many of us actively think about our body language, but it can tell a story to your employer. Poor body language can distract your future employer to such an extent that they don’t listen to your well prepared interview answers.


A smile, eye contact, solid posture, active listening and the occasional nod are all best practices when it comes to body language in an interview.

  1. You need to ask questions too

Don’t just ask anything, however. Insightful, reaearched questions are what we are talking about. This shows you have put the effort in to do your research, as well as the fact that you are curious to learn more.

  1. Your interview is where you sell yourself

Sell yourself, and then close the deal. The most qualified candidate doesn’t mean the first hired. The candidate that ‘wins’ will be the one who answers questions the best, and clearly shows their fit within the company.


Ask about the follow up process, and when the employer will be making his/her decision.

  1. Say your thank you’s.

Always send a follow up email or letter to say thank you. Politeness goes a long way in the interview process, especially after the fact.


Now that you have a better idea of how to prepare for and conduct yourself in an interview, why not try and figure out what career path to choose?

Also, check out what jobs we have available for you to apply for!